An impending depletion of oil and gas fields as well as their production cost rise causes an ever-increasing interest to coal as a basic energy source.

The return to coal as a source of energy is accompanied by the development of new advanced technologies for its utilization such as gasification of coal and production of water-coal fuel (WCF).

Water-coal fuel is a substitute for black oil fuel (mazut). The technology of WCF production is widely spread in the world but it is costly because it is sophisticated and based on expensive high-grade coals Besides, this technology is energy- and metal intensive.

A prepared composite fuel (PCF) containing coal, water and some other components has been developed in NSTU. It can be a liquid (LPCF) or solid (SPCF) composite fuel. An advanced technology has been developed for their production. This technology makes it possible to use any grades of coal including cheap undersize coal and sludge.

Facilities based on new physical principles of minerals disintegration are used in the proposed PCF technology. These principles include disintegration by impact, chipping and vibration action as well as by cavitaion effect. The facilities are low energy- and metal intensive.

The application of innovative principles of coal treatment made it possible to obtain a fuel possessing new qualities. The liquid composite fuel (LPCF) can replace black oil fuel and is a very stable substance as it can preserve its properties during a year or more. The solid composite fuel (SPCF) is homogeneous in composition and it burns as fossil coal but baking slag is not formed in burning.

One of the most important advantages of PCF is that its burning pollutant emissions are small.

The estimated economic efficiency of PCF application in industry is high.

At present the PCF technology is a marketable product. Work on new kinds of PCF is under way.


The software system TELMA is designed to solve various electromagnetic and heat exchange problems. It comprises a number of specialized subsystems (e. g. MASTAC, ELSTAC, EMPGEO, EDDYC, etc.) that are integrated by a single interface and compatible pre- and postprocessors.

The unique algorithms implemented in the software system TELMA make it possible to solve most complicated and difficult electromagnetic and heat exchange problems including ones that cannot be solved by using the most popular FEM-packages, e. g. COSMOS, ANSYS, TOSCA, etc.

Areas of application

· Calculation of stationary and non-stationary electromagnetic fields in sophisticated technical facilities such as deflecting multi-pole magnets, electron guns, high-voltage electric cables, electrical machines (e. g. turbogenerators and electric motors), etc.

· Calculation of stationary and non-stationary electromagnetic fields for electrical earth resources survey by using galvanic and induction field sources in ground, borehole and aerial field survey as well as for solving most difficult problems in survey operations.

· Calculation of temperature fields in gas- and water-cooled turbogenerators, in devices with vacuum thermal protection, in melting furnaces and chemical reactors.


The operation of the proposed pressure sensor is based on the tensoresistive transformation effect. The sensor elastic element is strained under the action of a measured pressure, which results in deforming resistive-strain sensors and changing their resistance. Each elastic element carries four resistive- strain sensors connected in the Wheatstone bridge.

The master chip KTMP-5 is implemented by using polysilicon resistive-strain sensors and has an elastic element in the form of a square membrane. Its thickness can be changed depending on the pressure to be measured. The membrane dimensions are 2 x 2mm while the overall chip dimensions are 5 x 5mm. Two test structures are incorporated in the sensor body. They can be used to measure electrical and physical parameters of resistive-strain sensors as well as their temperature.